Universal Access To All Knowledge
Home Donate | Store | Blog | FAQ | Jobs | Volunteer Positions | Contact | Bios | Forums | Projects | Terms, Privacy, & Copyright
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
Search Results
Results: 1 through 50 of 383 (0.139 secs)
You searched for: (collection:pythagoraspublishing OR mediatype:pythagoraspublishing) AND -mediatype:collection
[1] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     Next    Last
[texts]The Myth of Language and the Kind and Gentle Woman - Patrick Bruskiewich
There is no greater myth that perpetuates the feminist mystique than the myth that woman are by their very nature kind, thoughtful and altruistic. In reality, they are after all human just like the men. Many feminists strive to perpetuate biased stereotypes and questionable assumptions both about what it is to be female, and about maleness, male anger and male aggression. A look at the nature of Total War and the Nuremberg Tribunal Findings, about who voted Hitler into power and why...
Keywords: Myth; Kind and Gentle Woman; gender politics; Von Neumann Zero Sum Theory; Nash's Theory of Competitive Equilibrium; Democracy; Parliament; the Rule of Law; The International Court; the United Nations; NATO; male construct, Pythagoras Publishing
Downloads: 564 4.00 out of 5 stars4.00 out of 5 stars4.00 out of 5 stars4.00 out of 5 stars(1 review)
[texts]The New Ike Barber Learning Centre at UBC needs an Open Art Sculpture Garden. - Patrick Bruskiewich
A February 2008 letter to the Ubyssey at the University of British Columbia thanking Mr. Ike Barber for his $ 47 million endowment that saw the rebuilding of the UBC Main Library and the creation of the Ike Barber learning Centre. The letter suggest that the new Learning Centre needs an Open Air Sculpture Gallery to complete the project.
Keywords: Ike Barber Learning Centre; UBC; Open Air Sculpture Gallery
Downloads: 2
[texts]Canadian Peacekeeping, Two Sad Stories - Patrick Bruskiewich
A submission to the UBYSSEY newspaper in 2005 outlining two sad stories one from Afghanistan and one from Bosnia. The courage and dedication of Madame Justice Louise Arbour is praised for her work on the articles of prosecution for war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. The AK-47 is described as an instrument of mass destruction. Praise for Canadians serving over seas. Request for aid in the reconstruction of elementary schools in Afghanistan.
Keywords: Canadian Peacekeeping; Afghanistan; Bosnia; Madame Justice Louise Arbour; AK-47 instrument of mass destruction
Downloads: 24
[texts]Is UBC the Cambridge of the West Coast ? ... evidently not! - Patrick Bruskiewich
A 2007 letter to the Ubyssey newspaper asking the question "Is UBC the Cambridge of the West Coast" with the answer evidently not! It may have been once but today it treats its mathematicians, astronomers and physicists as second citizens not paying attention to their needs for new buildings and new classrooms. The letter touches on more issues.
Keywords: UBC; Cambridge of the West Coast; mathematicians; astronomers; physicists
Downloads: 8
[texts]Some Lessons in Intelligence - Patrick Bruskiewich
A short talk given in 1993 by Dr. R. V. Jones. It is worth noting the final words in his talk; "... intelligence, properly conducted, is not only honourable but is a vital contribution to the stability of the civilized world." Dr. R. V. Jones' talk is mentioned in the article "Station Point Grey and Very Special Intelligence: Part 2"
Keywords: R.V. Jones; Intelligence
Downloads: 43
[texts]Using a Sailing Ship to Estimate the Size of the Earth - Patrick Bruskiewich
During Renaissance times, in City states like Venice, arriving sailing ships were spotted at some distance by eager traders. The earlier their pennants were recognized the earlier the merchants could make money speculating. We now call such speculations the âStock Marketâ and whatâs traded âfuturesâ â on silk, spices, oils and the other luxuries from the far corners of the world. Galileoâs telescope would become popular with traders because it made recognizing the shipâs pennants all the...
Keywords: Estimate the Size of the Earth; Renaissance; Geometry; Venice; Sailing Ship; Traders; Galileo
Downloads: 65
[texts]Whilst Absinthe makes the heart grow fonder (a poem) - Patrick Bruskiewich
A poem about the impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh, using some of his own words ... Remember me when I am gone and colour not my story. In life I was a soul forgone, In death, sun’s flowers are my glory
Keywords: poem; absinthe; Vincent van Gogh
Downloads: 23
[texts]Touching a Raw Nerve, A Ubyssey Letter from 2007 - Patrick Bruskiewich
The issue of a lack of transparency at the University of British Columbia is touched on in a 2007 letter to the Ubyssey, the student newspaper at UBC. The Canadian Magazine Maclean's makes application through the Freedom of Information legislation to get the background information to write their annual assessment of Canadian Universities. The People of Canada pays for much of the costs of UBC and as a result, the People of Canada own the information gathered regarding public programs and the lik...
Keywords: lack of transparency at UBC; autocracy; freedom of information; UBC; University of British Columbia
Downloads: 3
[texts]Proliferation of WMD, A Hydra with Many Heads - Patrick Bruskiewich
Proliferation relates to all types of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), 1 whether they are Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Weapons. In the 1940âs Canada participated in WMD development as a wartime partner with America and Britain (ABC Partnership). In 1947 Canada declared that although we have the technological expertise to develop CBRN weapons, we would refrain from doing so, but would continue to work within the principles of our wartime agreements...
Keywords: Proliferation; WMD; Canada; UNSCR1718 (2006); UNSCR1874 (2009); Naval Quarantine of North Korea
Downloads: 16
[texts]Regnum Defende, Canada and Defending the Realm - Patrick Bruskiewich
Defining the Realm as the Crown, Canada, its Citizens, Institutions, National Interests and Sovereignty, the key mission of the Canadian Forces is to Defend the Realm (Regnum Defende). This mission involves Canadian Forces personnel who patrol the air, sea and land regions of Canada, provide search and rescue and assist civilian authorities in specified safety and security activities such as disaster management...
Keywords: Defending the Realm; Regnum Defende; Canada; Canadian Sovereignty; CAF
Downloads: 21
[texts]Let Us Portray All Things of Beauty in Our Art - Patrick Bruskiewich
An original poem by Patrick Bruskiewich Let us portray all things of beauty in our art that is the essence of life and light. And praise the dignity of our heart speak majestic words, both good and right.
Keywords: poem; art and creativity; Canadian poetry
Downloads: 6
[texts]More Harm than Good, don't ask don't tell - Patrick Bruskiewich
There is a fundamental principle of law know as neglect. When disregard results in harm to others than one is culpable of neglect. If you were to inadvertently put poison into coffee and walked away and someone were to die from that poison you would be guilty of negligence. If you knew it was poison but had no premonition that someone would die, or did nothing to diminish the harm, then you would be guilty of manslaughter...
Keywords: AIDS; don't ask don't tell; neglect
Downloads: 42
[texts]Canada, Natural Disasters and Humanitarian Relief - Patrick Bruskiewich
There are two general categories of natural disasters, those that are gradual and foreseeable, (such as drought or famine), or those which are sudden and unforeseeable (such as an earthquake or a severe storm). Natural disasters are multifaceted in character, and require a humanitarian response that is commensurate with the nature of the disaster. The scale of the response needs to reflect the social and economic conditions of the disaster victims...
Keywords: Canada; Natural Disasters; Humanitarian Relief; Darfur; Piracy off the Horn of Africa; Haiti
Downloads: 21
[texts]Excerpt from Poetry Majestic Beauty of Womanhood - Patrick Bruskiewich
An excerpt of two poems from the Poetry Book The Majestic Beauty of Womamhood, twelve original poems available as a Kindle Book at Amazon
Keywords: Original Poem; Eros, Majestic Beauty of Womanhood, Politics in Ottawa; Parliament of Canada; House of Commons
Downloads: 15
[texts]Think Small ... Think Quantum Mechanics - Patrick Bruskiewich
An April 2008 editorial in the Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal about the wonders and potential of applied quantum mechanics. In the 20th century size and economies of scale have driven technology ... the future might be different. It may be left to high efficiency microstructures and nanotechnology to best define the 21st century. George Volkoff's Theory of Errors is included:" the first rule is to never make an error in a calculation because a second error might cancel out the first
Keywords: Think Smal; Think Quantum Mechanics; microstructures; nanotechnology; George Volkoff; Volkoff Theory of Errors; CUPJ, Pythagoras Publishing
Downloads: 157
[texts]She Creates Her Own Harness - Patrick Bruskiewich
An original poem by Patrick Bruskiewich His world is his needle Everything that he is exists in his small pen that pierces through her flesh
Keywords: poem; eros; Canadian poetry
Downloads: 4
[texts]Depression Session - Patrick Bruskiewich
An original poem by Patrick Bruskiewich Olâ sis is really sick Pneumonia ⦠she canât lie The cars done broke again And so once more am I
Keywords: poem; depression; Canadian Poetry
Downloads: 9
[texts]Commanded Voir et Dire - Patrick Bruskiewich
In the aftermath of the 1983 KAL007 incident, I did an assessment which ended up on the desk of the Rt. Hon. Prime Minister of Canada, Mr. Pierre Trudeau, placed there by BC Senator Raymond Perrault. For the past three decades I have lived by the Command "Voir et Dire" - stand to be seen, stand to be heard - proffered by Senator Raymond Perrault in the fall of 1983. I have been commanded to lend advice to the Privy Council and Parliament of Canada where ever it is necessary...
Keywords: Voir et Dire; HRH Queen Elizabeth II; Privy Council; Parliament of Canada; KAL007; Pierre Trudeau; Senator Raymond Perrault
Downloads: 18
[texts]That Was That - Patrick Bruskiewich
An original poem by Patrick Bruskiewich I watched from afar As the big black bear ate fistful of my berries
Keywords: poem; funny; Canadian Poetry
Downloads: 1
[texts]Emily Carr, Nerves, Science 201 (week 8) - Patrick Bruskiewich
The week nine notes titled Nerves, for Science 201, Vision Perception and Science taught by the author at the Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design (refer to Science 201 Course Outline).
Keywords: Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design; Science 201; Nerves
Downloads: 60
[texts]Station Point Grey and Very Special Intelligence: Part 1 - Patrick Bruskiewich
This is an updated version of Part 1 uploaded in MS doc format. The first version has a number of typographical and grammatical mistakes which have been corrected. One errata at the end of the Little-Denniston agreement excerpt from the Bryden book is also revised. also the honorary degrees were granted in the spring of 2012.
Keywords: Station Point Grey; Special Intelligence; Ambassador Oshima; Tokyo; Berlin; UBC; Lester Pearson; Arlington Hall; Bletchley Park; NSA; decrypts
Downloads: 45
[texts]Emily Carr, Higher Visual Processing, Science 201 (week 10) - Patrick Bruskiewich
The week ten notes titled Higher Visual Processing, for Science 201, Vision Perception and Science taught by the author at the Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design (refer to Science 201 Course Outline).
Keywords: Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design; Science 201; Higher Visual Processing
Downloads: 54
[texts]The Laboratory Report - Patrick Bruskiewich
A laboratory report is a concise record of the observations and conclusions made and may be regarded as equivalent to a professional researcherâs notebook. In a professional laboratory or in industry a researcherâs notebook is a permanent and quasi-legal document and serves to record observations that have value as intellectual property or as something with commercial value. A laboratory report needs to be written up with sufficient detail that a person unfamiliar with your experimental set up...
Keywords: Laboratory Report; physics lab write up
Downloads: 44
[texts]Physics Experiment 4, Light - Patrick Bruskiewich
The purpose of this lab is to study some properties of light, to learn how logarithms can be used to find a power law relationship, and to use this technique to derive the Wien Displacement Law and Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The Temperature of the Surface of the Sun will be estimated using the Wien Displacement Law. Using the Wien Displacement Law it is possible to provide a simple derivation of the Planck Expression.
Keywords: physics experiment; properties of light; power law; logarithms; Wien Displacement Law; Stefan-Boltzmann Law
Downloads: 73
[texts]There for the Grace of God Go I (a poem) - Patrick Bruskiewich
A poem of Remembrance for Canadians who have laid down their life There for the grace of god go I to step the fields, and poppies pick crimson red, reminders still but I shall not forget A poem written in tribute to my godfather who died in August 1965 while serving in the RCAF in France with NATO. My godfather lies buried in an all but forgotten corner of Choloy cemetery in Nancy, France. I hope one day to bring him home to Canada, to set him to rest beside his parents, my maternal grandparents...
Keywords: Poem; Remembrance; Canadians; laid down life
Downloads: 10
[texts]Canada and US Collective Security - Patrick Bruskiewich
As outlined in the Canada First Defence Strategy, Canada and the US share a common responsibility to provide for the collective defence of its citizens in a complex, multifaceted and changing world environment. While Canada has always placed its domestic needs foremost in our defence preparedness, there are four key areas of partnership between Canada and the United States in Collective Security. Since 1947, both Canada and the United States have successfully dealt with the evolving bi-national ...
Keywords: Canada; United States; Joint Defence; Pearson Doctrine; Collective Security
Downloads: 31
[texts]An editorial, The Beginning of the End, growing up in the nuclear age - Patrick Bruskiewich
This editorial was read in national capitals on the eve of North Korea's second nuclear test in 2009, reminding the world about the USS Pueblo seizure in January 1968, the Walker spy ring, and the K-129 mystery (the attempted illicit launch of a SLBM by a Soviet Golf submarine against Pearl Harbour in March 1968), as well as the contemporary assessment that the implicit goal of President Kim of North Korea is to develop nuclear weapons that can be used against naval ships and ports like Pearl Ha...
Keywords: Naval Quarantine of North Korea; UNSCR1718(2006); UNSCR1874(2009); Radarsat; K-129, Irish Eyes Summit, President Reagan, Prime Minister Mulroney, CUPJ. cupj
Downloads: 33
[texts]Resonance Absorption by a Charged Damped Oscillator: Part 4 - Patrick Bruskiewich
In Part 1 we presented a modified approach to determining the total power absorbed by a charged damped oscillator . Some of the implications of this approach were explored in Part 2. In Part 3 we introduce the Sigma function . In part 4 the spectrum analysis of a two-node model of an electron is presented. In our model of a two-node system in equilibrium, the electrostatic energy of the system is equal to and in equilibrium to the magnetic energy...
Keywords: Resonance Absorption; Charged Damped Oscillator; two node system; in equilibrium; self-induction; fractal
Downloads: 93
[texts]An editorial, Always be a Good Samaritan, God, Queen and Country - Patrick Bruskiewich
What it means to be a good Samaritan, particularly when you are a naval officer, a gentleman, a diplomat and a scholar. Some lessons that life has taught me after severely injuring my spine at sea while helping to save the life of an officer cadet. The four solemn duties of a Canadian Naval Officer: Protect the Realm, Serve Parliament, Respect International Law and Keep the Faith with those who Serve...
Keywords: Good Samaritan; four solemn duties of a Canadian Naval Officer; honour God; Queen and Country; keys to heaven or hell adage Richard Feynman; CUPJ; cupj
Downloads: 52
[texts]She is the Minatrice - Patrick Bruskiewich
An original poem by Patrick Bruskiewich Her eyes are verdant green, As was her succulent soul. Looking at her, she did not seem so outgoing, to be so bold.
Keywords: poem; eros; Canadian poetry
Downloads: 13
[texts]Emily Carr, Scanning the Brain, Science 201 (week 9) - Patrick Bruskiewich
The week nine notes titled Scanning the Brain, for Science 201, Vision Perception and Science taught by the author at the Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design (refer to Science 201 Course Outline).
Keywords: Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design; Science 201; Scanning the Brain
Downloads: 57
[texts]A Physics Education Challenge for Canada's Premiers - Patrick Bruskiewich
An editorial from the September 2007 edition of the Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal challenging Canada's Provincial Premiers to make physics education a priority in schools across the country. A special thanks is given to the Hon. Jean Charest for his past and continued support for science and industrial policy in Canada and for his assistance to get a Canadian made TR-19 cyclotron installed at the CUSE site in Sherbrooke Quebec.
Keywords: Physics Education; education challenge; Jean Charest; TR cyclotron; CUPJ
Downloads: 27
[texts]The Issue has Never Been One of Freedom of Expression - Patrick Bruskiewich
A short essay for the Graduate magazine at the University of British Columbia from January 2002 commenting on a lack of scholastic responsibility with a cross section of academics and instructors who do not have an appreciation of the rich Parliamentary Heritage of Canada, and the nature of democracy in Canada. In particular the article questions why the out dated and backward 19th century prejudices of Marx and Engels are still taught in the 21st century in a modern nation like Canada...
Keywords: lack of scholastic responsibility at UBC; nature of democracy in Canada; Parliamentary democracy; communism and socialism opiate of lazy intellect
Downloads: 27
[texts]Proposal to Create a new UN Organization, the International Civil Earth Observation Organization, ICEOO - Patrick Bruskiewich
It is recommended that a new UN organization be established, the International Civil Earth Observation Organization, (ICEOO) and that it be built up from the existing shared responsibilities outlined in the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters". ICEOO can be patterned to some extent on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), which grew from the Chicago Convention of 7th December, 1944...
Keywords: International Civil Earth Observation Organization; ICEOO; Canada; UN; NATO; Responsibility to Protect; Naval Quarantine of North Korea
Downloads: 19
[texts]Growing up a Boy is not a Simple Thing - Patrick Bruskiewich
So much as been written to perpetuate the myth that boys are not at risk or suffering some disadvantage. Nothing could be further from the truth. When you look at how boys are disadvantaged, one has only to look at rates of child mortality, low academic achievement, at the rate of suicides, substance abuse and high school drop outs by boys. By not sufficiently addressing the needs of boys, there occurs the perpetuation of of social harm that passes from one generation to the next...
Keywords: Boys; disadvantaged; at risk; education; curriculum; discrimination
Downloads: 52
[texts]That What Makes Me King - Patrick Bruskiewich
A poem by Patrick Bruskiewich Love and Lust, Croesusâ touch Is everything ever enough? We fancy all, our paradise found until it just comes crashing down. ...
Keywords: Poem; eros; malchance; Canadian poetry
Downloads: 15
[texts]Galileo and his Inclined Plane Experiment - Patrick Bruskiewich
During the period 1592 - 1610 Galileo made some of the most important discoveries in mechanics. To begin, in or around 1590, he held the erroneous belief, probably borrowed from ancient script, that an object only experiences acceleration during a brief instant as it begins to fall; that is, the falling object experienced "instantaneous acceleration" and then settled down to constant speed. Measurements using the incline planes showed this belief in "instantaneous acceleration" to be in error...
Keywords: Galileo; incline plane; accelerated motion; Archimedes
Downloads: 122
[texts]Afghanistan and Operation Attention - Patrick Bruskiewich
Based on recommendations set out in the Manley Report (2008), Parliament has mandated a change of focus from a military one to a civilian one in Canadaâs role in Afghanistan. 1 Building on the successes of Operations APOLLO2 and ATHENA3, the Canadian Forces are now tasked to participate in ongoing humanitarian and training initiatives. Designated Operation ATTENTION, Canadaâs engagement in Afghanistan will now focus on non-combat initiatives in four vital areas.
Keywords: Afghanistan; Canada; NATO; Operation Attention
Downloads: 31
[texts]Two Simple Derivations of the Pryce-Wigner Position Operator - Patrick Bruskiewich
The Klein-Gordon equation is the equation for a massive spin zero particle. The traditional position operator needs to be replaced with the Pryce-Wigner Position Operator. Two simple derivations of the Pryce-Wigner Position Operator are presented in this paper, as is some of comments from both Maurice Pryce and Paul Dirac. This paper was written in 1982 with the kind assistance of Dr. Maurice Pryce of UBC but never published...
Keywords: Maurice Pryce; Paul Dirac; the Klein-Gordon equation; the Pryce-Wigner Position Operator; Hermitian Operator
Downloads: 69
[texts]What Ever Floats Your Boat - Patrick Bruskiewich
An original poem by Patrick Bruskiewich Row ⦠row ⦠row No happiness at all I work at this Then work at that I paddle to and fro They tell me where to go
Keywords: poem; existentialism; Canadian Poetry
Downloads: 1
[texts]The Cosmopolitan Nature of International Law - Patrick Bruskiewich
This October 2006 letter begins, "We Canadians must act as Good Samaritans" and makes mention of some of the advice the author has given over the past three decades including helping the Children of Chernobyl, helping to outline Canada's Policy "Responsibility to Protect", in areas of arms control and the Laws of the Seas. Mention is also made of the importance of the Vienna Convention brought into being by US President John F...
Keywords: Canada; Parliament; Responsibility to Protect; Vienna Convention; John F. Kennedy; Madame Justice Louise Arbour; Good Samaritans, Pythagoras Publishing
Downloads: 110
[texts]Worked Upon by Words - Patrick Bruskiewich
An original poem by Patrick Bruskiewich When it comes to words, are we merely content to sit and read, to surrender and drift away
Keywords: poem; existentialism; Canadian Poetry
Downloads: 10
[texts]Cancer, no other word causes more dread in the heart of men ... - Patrick Bruskiewich
Cancer claims the lives of ten million people around the world each year and there are few medical procedures available to properly diagnose and treat the disease. This September 2008 editorial which first appeared in the Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal looks at the NRU crisis, the design shortfalls of the 10 MW thermal MAPLE reactors, and several proposals on how one can deal with the NRU crisis, the MAPLE shortfalls and expanded SPECT radioisotope production using Canadian made cyclotro...
Keywords: SPECT radioisotope production; NRU; Maple Reactor; cyclotron; CUPJ
Downloads: 23
[texts]The Tuscan Women Know - Patrick Bruskiewich
An original poem by Patrick Bruskiewich Beyond the trees, set rows away from the tortuous sun the Tuscan women know to wait, for they who come.
Keywords: poem; eros; Canadian poetry
Downloads: 17
[texts]To Boldly Go, as Canadians Always Do, ICEOO - Patrick Bruskiewich
A look at Canadian's contribution to space research and a challenge to the Community of Nations to create a new UN Organization, ICEOO, the International Civil Earth Observation Organization. ICEOO is designed to assist the United Nations Security Council in its work in areas of conflict resolution and disaster management. Canada was the third nation into space after Russia and the United States and have played an important role in Communications and SAR Satellite developments...
Keywords: Canada and Space; Radarsat; ICEOO; the International Civil Earth Observation Organization; CUPJ; cupj
Downloads: 14
[texts]A letter the week of 911 - Our Generation`s Finest Hour - Patrick Bruskiewich
A letter written the week of the September 11th, 2001 attack on the World Trade Centre, the Pentagon in Washington and the unsuccessful attack on the White House. 911 was the first attack on North America since the Second World War when German U-Boats and Japanese submarines attacked shipping off both coasts. If I feel threatened by what they have done, the bastards have won. I will not let them win...
Keywords: September 11th; 911; Courage; Character; Free and Democratic Nations; our Generation`s Finest Hour; Canada; Parliament of Canada; NATO; United Nations
Downloads: 30
[texts]Tribute to His Holiness Pope John Paul 2 - Patrick Bruskiewich
A letter in tribute to Pope John Paul 2, written the week of his death. Pax Vobiscum
Keywords: Tribute; Pope John Paul 2; Pax Vobiscum. Pythagoras Publishing
Downloads: 131
[texts]From Behind The Moon - Patrick Bruskiewich
An original poem by Patrick Bruskiewich The moon ⦠the half moon appears from behind its pink, silky cloud
Keywords: poem; eros; Canadian poetry
Downloads: 13
[texts]Physics 12, Atmosphere Radiosonde Assignment - Patrick Bruskiewich
A physics 12 assignment titled atmosphere radiosonde.
Keywords: Physics 12; Atmosphere Radiosonde Assignment
Downloads: 88
[texts]Emily Carr, The Scientific Method, Science 201 (week 1) - Patrick Bruskiewich
The week one notes titled the Scientific Method, for Science 201, Vision Perception and Science taught by the author at the Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design (refer to Science 201 Course Outline).
Keywords: Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design; Science 201; Scientific Method
Downloads: 86
[1] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     Next    Last
Advanced search

Group results by:

> Relevance
Mediatype
Collection

Related creators

Patrick Bruskiewich

Related mediatypes

texts

Terms of Use (31 Dec 2014)